Russell Hardin

Helen Gould Shepard Professor in the Social Sciences; Professor of Politics
Ph.D. 1971 (political science), Massachusetts Institute for Technology; B.A. 1964 (mathematics), Oxford; B.A. (highest honors) 1962 (mathematics), B.S. (high honors) 1962 (physics), Texas.

Email:  russell.hardin [at] nyu.edu
Phone:  (212) 998-8503
Office Address:  NYU Department of Politics, 19 W. 4th Street, New York, NY 10012
Office Room Number:  330

For a full list of my work, see my Vita.

Areas of Research/Interest: Rational choice, collective action, morality behind the law, moral and political philosophy.

Useful Links

Select Publications:
Indeterminacy and Society. Princeton University Press, 2003.
Trust and Trustworthiness. Russell Sage Foundation, 2002.
Liberalism, Constitutionalism, and Democracy. Oxford University Press, 1999
One for All: The Logic of Group Conflict. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1995.
Morality Within the Limits of Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1988.
Collective Action. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press for Resources for the Future. 1982.


Hardin, Russell. 1991. "Acting Together, Contributing Together." Rationality and Society, 3 (July): 365-380.

Hardin, Russell. 1993. "Altruism and Mutual Advantage," Social Service Review, 67 (September): 358-373.

Hardin, Russell. 1991. "The Artificial Duties of Contemporary Professionals," Social Service Review, 64 (December): 528-541 (delivered as the Social Service Review Lecture for 1990, School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, 26 April).

Hardin, Russell. 1989. "Autonomy, Identity, and Welfare," In John Christman, ed., The Inner Citadel: Essays on Individual Autonomy, New York: Oxford University Press: 189-199.

Hardin, Russell. 1988. "Bargaining for Justice," Social Philosophy and Policy, 5 (Spring): 65-74.

Hardin, Russell. 1993. "Blackmailing for Mutual Good," University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 41 (April): 1787-1816.

Hardin, Russell. 2004. "Civil Liberties in the Era of Mass Terrorism," The Journal of Ethics, 8 (1): 77-95.

Hardin, Russell. 1971. "Collective Action As an Agreeable n-Prisoners' Dilemma," Behavioral Science, 16 (5): 472-481.

Hardin, Russell. 1986. "Comment on Gary S. Becker and Nigel Tomes,” in Siegwart Lindenberg, James S. Coleman, and Stefan Nowak, eds, Approaches to Social Theory, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 144-146.

Hardin, Russell. 2004. "Commentary: Identification and Ethnic Conflict," In Edward D. Mansfield and Richard Sisson, eds., The Evolution of Political Knowledge: Democracy, Autonomy, and Conflict in Comparative and International Politics. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

Hardin, Russell. 1992. "Commonsense at the Foundations," In Bart Schultz, ed., Essays on Henry Sidgwick, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 143-160.

Hardin, Russell. 2000. "Communities and Development: Autarkic Social Groups and the Economy," In Mancur Olson, Jr., and Satu Kähkönen, eds., A Not-so-Dismal Science: A Broader, Brighter Approach to Economies and Societies, Oxford: Oxford University Press: 206-227.

Hardin, Russell. 1988. "Constitutional Political Economy: Agreement on Rules," British Journal of Political Science, 18 (October): 513-30.

Hardin, Russell. 1989. "The Contemporary Crisis in Ethics," In The World Community in Post-Industrial Society, vol. 3: The Confusion in Ethics and Values in Contemporary Society and Possible Approaches to Redefinitions. Seoul, Korea: Wooseok Publishing Company: 119-31.

Hardin, Russell. 1995. "Contested Community," Society, 32 (5): 23-29.

Hardin, Russell. 1990. "Contractarianism: Wistful Thinking," Constitutional Political Economy, 1 (2): 35-52.

Hardin, Russell. 1984. “Contracts, Promises and Arms Control,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 14-17.

Hardin, Russell. 2002. "The Crippled Epistemology of Extremism," In Albert Breton, Gianluigi Galeotti, Pierre Salmon, and Ronald Wintrobe, eds., Political Extremism and Rationality, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 3-22.

Hardin, Russell. 1998. "The Dear Self and Others," Annual Review of Law and Ethics, 6: 211-230.

Hardin, Russell. 1999. "Deliberation: Method not Theory,” in Stephen Macedo, ed., Deliberative Politics: Essays on Democracy and Disagreement, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 103-119.

Hardin, Russell. 1999. "Democracy and Collective Bads," In Ian Shapiro and Casiano Hacker-Cordon, eds., Democracy's Edges, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 63-83.

Hardin, Russell. 1997. "Democracy on the Margin," In Albert Breton, Gianluigi Galeotti, Pierre Salmon, and Ronald Wintrobe, eds., Understanding Democracy: Economic and Political Perspectives, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 249-266.

Hardin, Russell. 2001. "Democratic Aggregation," In Level-of-Analysis Effects on Political Research, Yung-ming Hsu and Chi Huang, eds. Taipei, Taiwan: Weber Publication: 7-33.

Hardin, Russell. 2000. "Democratic Epistemology and Accountability," Social Philosophy and Policy, 17 (1): 110-126.

Hardin, Russell. 1992. "Determinacy and Rational Choice," In Reinhard Selten, ed., Rational Interaction: Essays in Honor of John C. Harsanyi, Berlin: Springer-Verlag: 191-200.

Hardin, Russell. 1986. "Deterrence and Moral Theory," In David Copp, ed., Reasoning about War and Strategy in the Nuclear Age: The Philosophers' Point of View, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 12: 161-193; reprinted in Kenneth Kipnis and Diana T. Meyers, eds., Political Realism and International Morality: International Ethics in the Nuclear Age, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1987: 35-60.

Hardin, Russell. 2004. “Distrust: Manifestations and Management.” In Russell Hardin, ed. Distrust. New York: Russell Sage Foundation: 3-33.

Hardin, Russell. 1984. "Difficulties in the Notion of Economic Rationality," Social Science Information, 23 (3): 453-467.

Hardin, Russell. 1987. "Does Might Make Right?” in J. Roland Pennock and John W. Chapman, editors, NOMOS 29: Authority Revisited, New York: New York University Press, pp. 201-217.

Hardin, Russell. 1999. “Do We Want Trust in Government?” in Mark Warren, ed., Democracy and Trust, Cambridge University Press, pp. 22-41.

Hardin, Russell. 1997. "Economic Theories of the State,” in Dennis C. Mueller, ed., Perspectives on Public Choice: A Handbook, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 21-34.

Hardin, Russell. 1993. "The Economics of Knowledge and Utilitarian Morality,” in Brad Hooker, ed., Rationality, Rules, and Utility: Essays on Richard Brandt’s Moral Philosophy, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, pp. 127-147.

Hardin, Russell.1997. "The Economics of Religious Belief,” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, v. 153, no. 1 (March), pp. 259-278.

Hardin, Russell. 1993. "Efficiency,” in Robert E. Goodin and Philip Pettit, eds., Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp. 462-470.

Hardin, Russell. 1992. "Efficiency vs. Equality and the Demise of Socialism,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy, vol. 22, no. 2 (June), pp. 149-161.

Hardin, Russell. 1980. "The Emergence of Norms,” Ethics, July, v. 90, pp. 575-587.

Hardin, Russell. 1989. "Ethics and Stochastic Processes,” Social Philosophy and Policy, Autumn, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 69-80.

Hardin, Russell. 1999. “Ethics in Big Science,” in Klaus Brinkmann, ed., The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, vol. 1: Ethics, Bowling Green, Ohio: Philosophy Documentation Center, pp. 231-45.

Hardin, Russell. 1982. "Exchange Theory on Strategic Bases,” Social Science Information, v. 21, no. 2, pp. 251-272.

Hardin, Russell. 2000. "Fallacies of Nationalism,” in Ian Shapiro and Stephen Macedo, eds., NOMOS 42: Designing Democratic Institutions, New York: New York University Press, pp. 184-208.

Hardin, Russell. 1999. "From Bodo Ethics to Distributive Justice,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 337-363.

Hardin, Russell. 2005. "From Communal Norms to Networks," Chinese Public Affairs Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 93-102.

Hardin, Russell. 2005. “From Order to Justice,” Politics, Philosophy and Economics, 4 (2): 175-194.

Hardin, Russell. 1993. "From Power to Order, from Hobbes to Hume,” Journal of Political Philosophy, vol. 1, no. 1, March, pp. 69-81.

Hardin, Russell. 1998. "Garbage Out, Garbage In,” Social Research, v. 65, no. 1 (Spring), pp. 9-30.

Hardin, Russell. 1991. "Hobbesian Political Order,” Political Theory, vol. 19, no. 2, May, pp. 156-180.

Hardin, Russell. 1976. "Hollow Victory: The Minimum Winning Coalition,” American Political Science Review, December, v. 70, pp. 1202-1214.

Hardin, Russell. 1990. “Incentives and Beneficence,” Social Justice Research, vol. 4, no. 2 (June), pp. 87-104.

Hardin, Russell. 1985. "Individual Sanctions, Collective Benefits,” in Richmond Campbell and Lanning Sowden, editors, Paradoxes of Rationality and Cooperation: Prisoner's Dilemma and Newcomb’s Problem, Vancouver, B. C.: University of British Columbia Press, pp. 339-354.

Hardin, Russell. 1998. "Institutional Commitment: Values or Incentives?” in Avner Ben Ner and Louis Putterman, eds., Economics, Values, and Organization, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 419-433.

Hardin, Russell. 1995. "Institutional Morality,” in Robert E. Goodin, ed., The Theory of Institutional Design, New York, Cambridge University Press, pp. 126-153.

Hardin, Russell. 1995. "International Deontology,” Ethics and International Affairs, vol. 9, pp. 133-46.

Hardin, Russell. 2004. "Internet Capital," Analyse & Kritik, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 122-138.

Hardin, Russell. 2001. "Law and Social Order,” Philosophical Issues, vol. 11: 61-85.

Hardin, Russell. 2002. "Liberal Distrust," European Review, 10 (1): 73-89.

Hardin, Russell. 1993. "Liberalism: Political and Economic,” Social Philosophy and Policy, vol. 10, no. 2, June, pp. 121-144.

Hardin, Russell. 1996. “Magic on the Frontier: The Norm of Efficiency,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review, vol. 144, #5 (May), pp. 1987-2020.

Hardin, Russell. 2005. “Migration and Community,” Journal of Social Philosophy, 36 (2): 273-287.

Hardin, Russell. 1998. "Modern Contractarianism," In Peter Newman, ed., The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, Volume II, New York, NY: Stockton Press, pp. 645-651.

Hardin, Russell. 1992. "The Morality of Law and Economics,” Law and Philosophy, vol. 11, no. 4 (November), pp. 331-384

Hardin, Russell. 1994. “My University’s Yacht: Morality and the Rule of Law,” in Randy E. Barnett and Ian Shapiro, eds., NOMOS 36, The Rule of Law, New York: New York University Press, pp. 205-227.

Hardin, Russell. 2001. "The Normative Core of Rational Choice Theory,” in Uskali Maki, ed., The Economic World View: Studies in the Ontology of Economics, Cambridge University Press, pp. 57-74.

Hardin, Russell. 2001. "Norms of Cooperativeness and Networks of Trust,” (with Karen S. Cook), in Michael Hechter and Karl-Dieter Opp, eds., Social Norms, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 327-47.

Hardin, Russell. 1999. “Norms of Exclusion and Difference,” in Samuel Bowles, Maurizio Franzini, and Ugo Pagano, eds., The Politics and Economics of Power, London: Routledge, pp. 225-259.

Hardin, Russell. 1989. "Political Obligation,” in Alan Hamlin and Philip Pettit, editors, The Good Polity, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp. 103-119.

Hardin, Russell. 1986. "Pragmatic Intuitions and Rational Choice,” in Andreas Diekmann and Peter Mitter, editors, Paradoxical Effects of Social Behavior: Essays in Honor of Anatol Rapoport, Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag, pp. 27-36.

Hardin, Russell. 1996. "The Psychology of Business Ethics,” in David M. Messick and Ann Tenbrunsel, eds., Codes of Conduct: Behavioral Research and Business Ethics, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 342-361.

Hardin, Russell. 1990. "Public Choice vs. Democracy,” in John W. Chapman, editor, NOMOS 32: Majorities and Minorities, New York: New York University Press, pp. 184-203.

Hardin, Russell. 2000. "The Public Trust,” in Susan J. Pharr and Robert D. Putnam, eds., Disaffected Democracies: What's Troubling the Trilateral Democracies, Princeton University Press, pp. 31-51.

Hardin, Russell. 1987. "Rational Choice Theories,” in Terence Ball, editor, Idioms of Inquiry: Critique and Renewal in Political Science, Albany, N. Y.: SUNY Press, pp. 67-91.

Hardin, Russell. 1998. "Rational Choice Theory,” in Edward Craig, ed., Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, London: Routledge, vol. 8, pp. 64-75

Hardin, Russell. 1980. "Rationality, Irrationality, and Functionalist Explanation,” Social Science Information, September, v. 19, pp. 755-772.

Hardin, Russell. 1990. "Rationally Justifying Political Coercion,” Journal of Philosophical Research, vol. 15 (1989-90), pp. 79-91.

Hardin, Russell. 1998. "Reasonable Agreement: Political Not Normative,” in Paul J. Kelly, ed., Impartiality, Neutrality and Justice: Re-Reading Brian Barry’s Justice as Impartiality, Edinburg: Edinburg University Press, pp. 137-153.

Hardin, Russell. 2004. "Representing Ignorance," Social Philosophy and Policy, 21(1): 76-99.

Hardin, Russell. 1996. “Russell’s Power,” Philosophy of the Social Sciences, vol. 26, no. 3 (September), pp. 322-347.

Hardin, Russell. 1985. "Sanction and Obligation,” The Monist, July, v. 68, no. 3, pp. 403-418.

Hardin, Russell. 2001. "Seeing Like Hayek,” The Good Society, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 36-9.

Hardin, Russell. 1995. "Self-interest, group identity," in Nationalism and Rationality, eds, Alber Breton, Gianluigi Galeotti, Pierre Salmon, and Ronald Wintrope. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 14-42

Hardin, Russell. 1999. "Social Capital,” in James Alt and Margaret Levi, eds., Competition and Cooperation: Conversations with Nobelists about Economics and Political Science, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 170-189.

Hardin, Russell. 1990. "The Social Evolution of Cooperation,” in Karen Cook and Margaret Levi, editors, The Limits of Rationality, University of Chicago Press, pp. 358-378.

Hardin, Russell. 1987. “Social Justice in the Large and Small,” Social Justice Research, April, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 83-105.

Hardin, Russell. 1996. "Special Status for Groups," The Good Society, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 12-19.

Hardin, Russell. 1976. "Stability of Statist Regimes: Industrialization and Institutionalization,” in Tom R. Burns and Walter Buckley, eds., Power and Control: Social Structures and Their Transformation, London, Sage Publications, pp. 147-168.

Hardin, Russell. 1995. “Straddling Lines,” in James W. Fernandez and Milton B. Singer, eds., The Conditions of Reciprocal Understanding, Chicago: Center for International Studies, University of Chicago, pp. 373-388.

Hardin, Russell. 2002. “Street-Level Epistemology and Political Participation,” Journal of Political Philosophy, v. 10, no.2, pp. 212-29;

and in James Fishkin and Peter Laslett, eds., Philosophy, Politics and Society vol. 7, Blackwell, forthcoming, pp. 163-81.

Hardin, Russell. 1992. "The Street-Level Epistemology of Trust,” Analyse und Kritik, vol. 14, December, pp. 152-176;
Reprinted: Politics and Society, vol. 21, December 1993, pp. 505-529.

Hardin, Russell. 2004. “Subnational Groups and Globalization,” in Keith Dowding, Robert Goodin, and Carole Pateman, eds., Justice and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 179-94.

Hardin, Russell. 2004. “Terrorism and Group-Generalized Distrust.” In Russell Hardin, ed. 2004. Distrust. New York: Russell Sage Foundation: 278-297.

Hardin, Russell. 1988. “Time and Rational Choice,” in Guy Kirsch, Peter Nijkamp, and Klaus Zimmerman, editors, The Formulation of Time Preferences in a Multidisciplinary Perspective: Their Consequences for Individual Behaviour and Collective Decision-Making, Aldershot, Hampshire: Gower Publishing Company, pp. 117-130.

Hardin, Russell. 1997. "Theory on the Prowl,” in Kristen Renwick Monroe, ed., Contemporary Empirical Political Theory (festschrift for David Easton), Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 202-218.

Hardin, Russell. 1991. "To Rule in No Matters, To Obey in All: Democracy and Autonomy,” Contemporary Philosophy, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1-7.

Hardin, Russell. 2004. "Transition to Corporate Democracy?" in Janos Kornai, and Susan Rose-Ackerman, editors, Building a Trustworthy State in Post-Socialist Transition, New York: Palgrave Macmilan, pp. 175-197.

Hardin, Russell. 2000. "Trust and Society,” in Gianluigi Galeotti, Pierre Salmon, and Ronald Wintrobe, eds. Competition and Structure: The Political Economy of Collective Decisions: Essays in Honor of Albert Breton, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 17-46.

Hardin, Russell. 1998. "Trust in Government,” in Valerie Braithwaite and Margaret Levi, eds., Trust and Governance, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 9-27.

Hardin, Russell. 1991. “Trusting Persons, Trusting Institutions,” in Richard J. Zeckhauser, ed., The Strategy of Choice, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp. 185-209.

Hardin, Russell. 1996. “Trustworthiness,” Ethics, vol. 107, no. 1 (October), pp. 26-42.

Hardin, Russell. 1986. "The Utilitarian Logic of Liberalism,” Ethics, October, v. 97, no. 1, pp. 47-74;

Reprinted: Julian Nida-Rümelin and Wilhelm Vossenkuhl, eds., Ethische und politische Freiheit (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1998), pp. 335-363.

Hardin, Russell. 1989. "Why a Constitution?” in Bernard Grofman and Donald Wittman, editors, The Federalist Papers and the New Institutionalism, New York: Agathon Press, pp. 100-120.

Hardin, Russell. 2003. "Why Know?" working paper.

Hardin, Russell. 1986. "Winning Versus Doing Well,” in Catherine McArdle Kelleher, Frank J. Kerr, and George H. Quester, editors, Nuclear Deterrence: New Risks, New Opportunities, Washington, D. C.: Pergamon-Brassey's International Defense Publishers, pp. 103-117.

Fellowships/Honors: Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science; Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Guggenheim Fellow, 1996-1997; Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, September 1996-June 1997; Visiting Scholar, Centre de Recherche en Epistémologie Appliquée (CREA) Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, July 1994; Visiting Scholar, Russell Sage Foundation, 1992-1993; Scholar-in-Residence, Rockefeller Center, Bellagio, Italy, April-May 1988, May-June 1996; Visiting Fellow, Research School of the Social Sciences, Australian National University, summer 1987, summer 1990; Earhart Fellow, 1983; National Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University, 1975-1976; Junior Fellow, Research Institute on Communist Affairs, Columbia University, 1971-1972; Honorary Woodrow Wilson Fellow, 1962; Rhodes Scholar; Phi Beta Kappa.

External Affiliations: American Economic Association, American Philosophical Association, American Political Science Association, American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy, Public Choice Society.

 Update your faculty profile